The rotary kiln is differentiated into gas, bed and wall zones. The bed zone is further divided into the cascade layer and the lifting region. The calculation of the gas flow in the flame-heated rotary kiln can be carried out using comprehensive mathematical models from Bundrock,. Thereby, the differential equations from the movement, continuity and enthalpy equations are solved numerically. Input flows over the rotary kiln length due to secondary air or resulting from chemical reactions in the solid bed can be incorporated. It also includes the prediction of various flows, the variation of geometrical boundary conditions and the determination of the configuration of heat transfer surfaces and can also be coupled with the partial models for heat transfer, solid transport and chemical reactions. In the operating procedure described, each axial solid section can be balanced according to the energy. A boundary condition is given by the product input temperature at the start of the rotary kiln. In order to minimize the amount of calculation

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